2020

RKD BULLETIN

The Rotterdamsche Kunstkring’s ‘comprehensive W.B. Tholen exhibition’ in 1906

Evelien de Visser

The largest solo exhibition of Willem Bastiaan Tholen (1860-1931) organised during his lifetime took place at the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring art society in 1906.1 During the months of February and March, no less than 111 works of art were on display in the Kunstkring’s premises on Witte de Withstraat. While works were lent by private individuals, art dealers, and the royal family, the majority came from the painter himself. A copious amount of diverse source material relating to this exhibition has been preserved,2 making study in detail possible. Who initiated this undertaking, and why? Who was involved in its organisation? Which works were displayed, how were they selected, and to what extent was the exhibition successful?

Tholen’s career until 1906
W.B. Tholen was an established artist by the time the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring decided to exhibit his work [1]. Tholen first participated in the show of Living Masters in Amsterdam in 1881 and in the following years became a member of the leading artists’ associations in the Netherlands: Arti et Amicitiae, Pulchri Studio, and the Hollandsche Teeken-Maatschappij. He made his breakthrough in the late 1880s with subjects such as polder landscapes, forest views, and sand excavations. Critics praised Tholen’s versatility and his original way of portraying everyday subjects. His career took off in 1896. In that year, three solo exhibitions were held at the art firms of Johannes Josephus Biesing (1856-1927) in The Hague and of Abraham Preijer (1862-1927) in Amsterdam.3 These shows were extolled in the press for two reasons. First, because multiple works of art from various periods were shown together. According to some critics, this made it possible to follow the development of his oeuvre, in contrast to the group exhibitions in which Tholen only showed a single work. And second, because of ‘the rarity of work by Tholen here in the Netherlands.’4 ‘Foreign art dealers’ were to blame for the scarcity of Tholen’s work in his native country. For a long time now, they ‘have been taking immediate possession of everything completed by this chosen one’s not particularly prolific brush.’5 They were still writing about this ten years later, in 1906. Tholen’s ‘work is not often to be had in his own country, as discerning foreign collectors lay claim to whatever he produces – it all goes to England and Germany.’6

1
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
Self-portrait in a Wooded Landscape 1895
oil on canvas 64 x 89 cm
Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum, gift of Bedrijfsvrienden Dordrechts Museum 2019

The initiative to organise a solo exhibition of Tholen’s work was taken by the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring.7 Founded in 1893 following the example of the Haagsche Kunstkring, this association aimed to stimulate cultural life in Rotterdam and serve as a platform for artists to meet. The latter goal proved overly ambitious for a city like Rotterdam, as The Hague and Amsterdam were the artistic epicentres at the close of the nineteenth century. Membership tailed off, and after a few years the association resolved to concentrate on art-loving members consisting of collectors and enthusiasts. This decision resulted in a varied programme of contemporary visual culture. Quality, professionalism, and originality were paramount.8 The society strove to ‘always [present] something new,’ which was nowhere else to be seen, to its members.9 It had previously mounted solo exhibitions of artists such as Vincent van Gogh, Floris Verster, and Jan Toorop. The dearth of Tholen’s work in the Netherlands also made him an interesting subject for an exhibition.

In the summer of 1905, board member Sophie Plate (1874-1923) and secretary Georgette Petronella van Stolk (1867-1963) visited Tholen’s studio [2]. Thereafter, the artist wrote Van Stolk: ‘If your intention is to [show] paintings, there is little I can do for you, as I hardly know where my work has ended up, and kindly request that you relay your intentions to the gentlemen of Wallis & Son / The French Gallery / 120 Pall Mall / London. / If, however, your thoughts are focused on what you and Miss Plate saw here, we need not go to such lengths [and?] [it is?] only necessary that I agree with your wish.’10 Georgette van Stolk responded that she wanted to organise a ‘handsome, comprehensive exhibition’ of his paintings as well as studies and sketches. ‘It seems to me that there is an opportunity to bring together a lot of beauty,’ she added.11

Provisions
At the end of October, Tholen gave Van Stolk his final approval ‘for a complete exhibition of his work’ and forwarded the names of art dealers and private individuals who had traded or owned his work [3]. He mentioned the dealers Biesing, Preijer, the Amsterdam art dealerships Frans Buffa & Sons, and Hermanus Gijsbertus Tersteeg (1845-1927) of Boussod, Valadon & Cie (formerly Goupil). Tholen’s most important representative was The French Gallery in England, with which he was under contract between around 1896 and 1906.12 He expected them to cooperate, but doubted whether the exhibition’s ambition, as specified by the art society, was feasible, because ‘[...] what is scattered you can hardly let come, I think, and the most important things, for me, may well be stored in Scotland, England, and America. My work was also sold in Munich, as well as Belgium and France, but I don’t know where it went. [...] In short, it will prove difficult to give an overview of my painted oeuvre.’13 From the reactions of the Dutch art dealers it emerges that only Biesing had some works in stock in the autumn of 1905. At home he had sold paintings by Tholen to former ministers Nicolaas Gerard Pierson (1839-1909) and Jacob Theodoor Cremer (1847-1923), for instance, while more works had gone to buyers abroad.14 ‘I can’t be of much service to you for the Tholen exhibition,’ replied art dealer Tersteeg. ‘In the latest years I have had nothing by Tholen, and with a few exceptions, what I had in the past was bought by foreigners, mainly American dealers [...].’15 Buffa, one of the first to offer Tholen’s watercolours in the Netherlands, also had ‘nothing by this master today,’ although he did provide the addresses of some owners in the Netherlands. He did this after mentioning that the art society should first turn to The French Gallery ‘which in recent years still has or had a contract with him, and where we recently saw a lot of his work.’16

And yet it turned out that there were in fact works by Tholen in the Netherlands. In November 1905 Georgette van Stolk approached almost twenty owners and pledges by them soon rolled in. In a few cases there was a negative reaction, or none at all. The aforementioned Nicolaas Gerard Pierson owned a painting ‘depicting a house with a white wall, in sun and shade,’ which he was reluctant to part with. ‘This painting is a jewel in my drawing room, and to miss it where I least want to, gives rise to some objections. Considering the other side of the coin, I fully understand that this magnificent work by the master, which always receives great admiration certainly because of its delicious colour scheme, is indispensable to an exhibition such as the one envisaged.’17 Jan Albertus van der Loeff (1854-1920) was attached to his ‘Tholen’ and first wanted to know how long the art society wanted to exhibit it. ‘My collection of paintings is not large and when the piece is removed from this wall an empty space is created, which I am unable to fill. This bothers me little for a short period, but becomes unpleasant when it is for a long time.’18 Tholen contacted Van der Loeff personally to lend him a replacement painting of his own for the duration of the exhibition, a proposal to which Van der Loeff was amenable. Maria Magdalene Alida Tersteeg-Pronk (1845-1925), wife of the art dealer, was willing to lend out her two paintings for the exhibition ‘with pleasure,’ but only ‘if Mr Tholen approves, otherwise not’ [4].19 In addition to the collectors Herman Karel Westendorp (1868-1941) and the brothers Marinus Johannes (1841-1924), and Jacobus Johannes Tiele (1835-1911), the artist’s work was owned mainly by family members, friends and acquaintances.

At the end of 1905, the scope of the exhibition was expanded to include watercolours. Naturally, Tholen could ‘very well identify with this for the sake of completeness.’20 A second request to Pierson, who apparently also owned the watercolour De Sierkan Dairy, was granted [5]. The royal family received an additional letter entreating them to make the Cannenburgh watercolour available, which the artist was keen to include in the exhibition, ‘in order to stimulate the highest possible level of interest.’2122 Unfortunately, it was located in the private rooms of Her Majesty and was therefore not available. The painting Night, about which Van Stolk had previously approached the royal court, was in the possession of Her Majesty the Queen Mother Emma (1858-1934) and could, in fact, be lent out.23

Transport
The court staff sent the royal family’s painting from Soestdijk Palace. For the other works coming from the east of the country, Van Stolk wrote Kunsthandel Gerbrands in Arnhem for assistance.24 A ‘trusted person’ from this firm would travel to the various places to pack and transport the paintings. They were then shipped by the steamer Concordia to Rotterdam.25 In Amsterdam, the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring could rely on the help of their own former treasurer Albert Reballio (1865-1936) to collect the loans.26 He worked for the Amsterdam art dealership C.M. van Gogh and Georgette van Stolk was in good contact with him. On Tuesday, 13 February, four days before the opening, all the works of art in The Hague were collected by a moving van. More than 60 were to be picked up at Tholen’s house, the ‘Kanaalvilla’. He asked Van Stolk: ‘[...] would it be possible to arrange for my loans to be collected first in the morning? I would find that very calming, and so probably would the van.’27 Another owner also had a special request, namely whether the painting could be collected ‘preferably by a cautious man, because it hangs above a precious porcelain cabinet.’28

2
W.B. Tholen’s Studio in the ‘Kanaalvilla’ in Scheveningen
photograph
Whereabouts unknown
This modern print is in the collection of the RKD

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3
Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk
dated 8 November 1905
Rotterdam, Stadsarchief Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kunstkring Archive, inv. no. 36

4
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
Still Life c. 1890
oil on panel 24,3 x 31 cm
Whereabouts unknown

5
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
De Sierkan Dairy c. 1889
watercolour 685 x 932 mm (with frame)
Leiden, Museum De Lakenhal, on loan from the Vereniging van Belangstellenden

Installation
After the loans arrived at the premises of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, Tholen travelled to Rotterdam to help hang them. ‘Lately, or rather nowadays, I have been so busy with this exhibition that I am beginning to develop a sense of responsibility: I must help to make everything as good as possible.’29 Tholen was meticulous regarding the installation and the setting. For example, he was fairly critical about the skylight in the galleries [6]. ‘When I last saw Suze Robertson’s exhibition, it seemed to me that the gallery was not as light as one might expect from all those windows. I would therefore like to take the liberty of asking a practical question, namely whether the windows are dirty? Especially in a big city like Rotterdam, such a skylight is soon covered with a layer of dust that dims the light. Should it be the case that the windows have not been checked in a long time (as this might not be easy), I kindly request that this be looked into.’30 Also on the eve of the opening of the exhibition not a single detail escaped his attention: ‘the doctor’s coach [one of the exhibited works] could possibly be moved slightly back so that it hangs in full light’ and he wanted two paintings to be removed from their frames to give them ‘a good cleaning with water.’31

The French gallery
Just when the exhibition was almost installed, a large consignment of 22 oil paintings and 11 watercolours was suddenly delivered to the art society, sent by W. Lawson Peacock of The French Gallery. The association had contacted this gallery about the exhibition in the autumn; however, its cooperation depended on associate Peacock, who was then in Canada on a business trip. Upon his return in January, Peacock wrote that the firm would send 25 paintings and between 12 and 15 drawings by Tholen from its own inventory and advised against foreign loans: ‘Most of Mr Tholens works we have had through our hands are in Canada and the States and the import duty and carriage-[re?]take would be more than you would undertake to defray; about 30% at least our value.’32 By then, the installation of the exhibition and the selection process was almost complete and Van Stolk hastened to write that many loans had already been confirmed and the exhibition space was limited and asked that only one painting be sent, namely the Port of Harderwijk. Peacock responded by sending 22 paintings and 11 watercolours. ‘I am very sorry your 3rd note got mislaid but we were asked by Mr Tholen to make our Collection as complete as possible. I am sure you will be able to do something handsome with them […],’ Peacock wrote in the accompanying letter with an enclosed price list [7].33 In the end, three paintings and one watercolour from the shipment were included in the exhibition.34 The treasurer Maria Nijgh (1875-1954) asked the art dealer to which address they could return the remaining works, because as she maintained in her letter: ‘As we did not expect them, we did not insure them.’35

The exhibition
The exhibition opened on Saturday, 17 February. Its hours were 10 am to 4:30 pm daily. On display were 96 paintings, 9 watercolours, 1 charcoal drawing, 1 ‘coloured drawing’ and 4 etchings. The distinction Tholen made between paintings, sketches, and studies was discussed already during the selection process. With paintings he meant the studio pieces – works, oil on canvas, that could be seen at national and international exhibitions, such as Evening, Landscape in Giethoorn, Mill, Giethoorn, and Seascape (nos. 1, 2, 5, 69 and 89) [8]. The studies and sketches, usually oil on canvas glued on panel, were in most cases between 20 and 30 centimetres high and 30 and 40 centimetres wide. In his own words, they had never been exhibited outside the artist’s studio [9].36 There were 68 works of art for sale: 60 from Tholen’s estate, 3 from Biesing, 3 from The French Gallery and 2 from Preijer. The asking prices ranged from 3000 guilders – for Biesing’s large canvas Giethoorn (200 x 150 cm) – to 175 guilders. Most, however, were priced below 500 guilders. The society charged a 10 percent commission for every sale.37

The press
The exhibition could count on some interest from the press [10].38 The reviews were predominantly favourable, but not fiercely enthusiastic. Critics were particularly positive about the diversity and exceptional character of Tholen’s choice of subject matter, and (as had been written ten years earlier) the way in which he portrayed it. A.C. Loffelt wrote: ‘He understands the great art of giving seemingly insignificant subjects a harmonious, delicately felt interpretation.’ However, he did not believe that this made Tholen a ‘revolutionary among our patriotic painters [...].’39 According to another critic, Tholen was grand in all things small. ‘He keeps to modest subjects, yet on that level he upholds himself as a master of self-control and professionalism.’40 According to the critic of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, he had ‘keen powers of observation’ but not a ‘strong temperament.’ Yet he ‘[is] very capable and a man of great taste. [...] A landscape by him is not nature, it is a patch of outdoors with something that is accidentally unique and void of strong generalisation.’41 The most extensive article about the exhibition was written by art critic Albert Plasschaert (1874-1941), a good friend of Tholen [11].42 According to Plasschaert, he was ‘an artist whose pleasure it is to create a lively unity out of all manner of things; who has a special ease of composition; one of today’s most distinctive, and yet not untraditional painters [...].’ The critic put his finger on the same weak spot. ‘Tholen’s interest tends toward the tender, soft, lush, unrejoicing, in colour. It is often, somewhat doleful in disposition. [...] It sinks in slowly. [...] Tholen’s works do not shock, they gradually persuade.’43

Plasschaert’s role
The exhibition was accompanied by a sober yet highly informative catalogue, in which the works were arranged chronologically, including details about material and technique, dimensions, and owners. Tholen was indebted to Plasschaert for most of this catalogue. It was quite a task for the artist to gather the information on the works of art in his possession: ‘Here is the list. Some dimensions are missing, but forgive me, I no longer have any desire to measure.’44 Two days later: ‘When I read the letter, I thought: "Child spare me anymore mention of dates!" But I’ll take one last sip from the poisoned cup and have a look.’45

Plasschaert proved a great help to Tholen in realising the exhibition. From their correspondence can be concluded that the artist was particularly concerned about the organisational aspect and the scope of the undertaking. Plasschaert was involved in the exhibition as of the summer of 1905. On June 19th Van Stolk wrote to both Plasschaert and Tholen about asking for Plasschaert’s assistance.46 Plasschaert corresponded with Tholen and Van Stolk over the following months and ensured that the artist compiled a list of owners in due time. However, Tholen did not know exactly where his work was: ‘...here and there. And I don’t know who and I don’t know what. As far as that goes, everything is uncertain.’ And further on in the same letter to Van Stolk: ‘Mr. Plasschaert also told me that he wanted to compile the list; before that happens, there will be quite a bit of sweet and bitter to endure, actually more suffering to suffer, and your pen will have to dip into the dark inkwell countless times to shed light on what is still unclear to us.’47 Once all of the works had finally arrived in Rotterdam, Tholen asked Plasschaert to come there to help with the installation, after which they could straightaway review the price list together.48

Tholen and Plasschaert’s correspondence about the exhibition is interesting because of its personal character and cordial tone compared to that of the business-like and somewhat distant exchange between the artist and Van Stolk. Just before the opening, Tholen confided to Plasschaert that the exhibition had not become the all-encompassing show he had envisaged. ‘As far as the paintings and watercolours are concerned, the exhibition is thin and provides no overview whatsoever of what I have made; a few paintings from the past and some others which happen to have remained here. Be that as it may – that’s how it is, there’s nothing to be done!’49 Possibly Tholen had expected, or at least hoped, to be reunited with all of his important pieces that had been sold abroad and vanished from his and the public’s sight. These works would be complemented by studies and sketches in his possession. In the final selection, the proportions turned out to be exactly the reverse; there were mainly studies and sketches from Tholen’s estate, supplemented by a small group of loans from others.50

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6
The Exhibition Gallery of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring in 1910
illustration in Catalogus der tentoonstelling van portretminiaturen
Rotterdamsche Kunstkring 27 March-16 May 1910

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7
Letter from W.L. Peacock to [M. Nijgh] with price list
dated 16 February 1906
Rotterdam, Stadsarchief Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kunstkring Archive, inv. no. 146

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7a

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7b

8
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
Mills near Giethoorn 1882
oil on canvas 94,5 x 150,5 cm
Belgium, private collection
Photograph: P. den Ouden/Van den Dool, Sliedrecht

9
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
Painters c. 1891
oil on panel 26,5 x 24 cm, sale The Hague (Venduehuis), 24 April-22 May 2019, lot 105

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10
A.T.
‘Tentoonstelling W.B. Tholen’ De Week 1906
p. 765

11
Willem Bastiaan Tholen
Portrait of Albert Plasschaert, 1916
oil on canvas 69 x 52 cm
The Hague, The Historical Museum of The Hague

Revenue and sales51
The exhibition closed on 28 March and drew in just over 1372 visitors.52 Fifteen paintings and one watercolour were sold, all from the painter’s estate [12]. Tholen received a total of 3312.50 guilders (now just over 40,000 euros) from the art society for the sale, which averaged out to 200 guilders per work (now almost 2500 euros).53 The buyers were mainly from the artist’s own circle of acquaintances. Cobi Witsen (1851-1930), the bosom friend of Tholen’s wife, and Marie Boddaert-Gelderman (1844-1914) and her daughter Anna Ortt-Gelderman (1871-1947) each bought a painting. Other buyers, as well as the board members of the art society, belonged to Rotterdam’s affluent elite, such as Georgette van Stolk’s sister Grietie (b. 1860) and her husband William Smith (1849-1918), and Johannes Coenraad Moulijn (1862-1931), a brother of the artist Simon Moulijn.54 The former treasurer of the art society, the banker Anton Bernhard Henny (1872-1958), also bought a work (in the lowest price range). The Amsterdam lawyer Gerardus Willebrordus van Neijenhoff (1856-1923) added the third ‘Tholen’ to his collection with his acquisition of the painting Watering Cans [13]. The Tiele brothers also bought at this exhibition. Via Plasschaert, Tholen learned that Van Stolk was interested in acquiring Elburg . Tholen felt that ‘any settlement you suggest to Plasschaert would be fine.’55 But later the artist asked Van Stolk ‘to accept that sketch as a reminder of the exhibition [...] as a small token of appreciation for all the efforts on my behalf.’56

Conclusion
The organisation of the Tholen exhibition at the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring brought together all the major players of the early twentieth-century art circuit: the art association, the artist, the art dealer, the art owner/collector, and the art critic. Moreover, the archival material makes clear what everyone’s position was and how they related to each other.

The Rotterdamsche Kunstkring was interested in the visual arts and focused on presenting them, and was relatively independent in this respect. For financial support it could count on the (contribution of the) members, who came from the (Rotterdam) elite. This network could also be used to borrow artworks for exhibitions. The association supported artists and was therefore happy to contribute to their fame. The fact that most of the works in Tholen’s exhibition came from his own holdings; that the influence of the art trade in determining the selection was limited; and that sales during the exhibition remained in the artist’s own hands, should be seen in this light.57 Tholen could not have wished for a better partner in the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. He had a say in the selection process and was kept well informed about who bought his work. The Rotterdamsche Kunstkring was averse to commercial interests which, in their view, were at odds with the artistic value of the visual arts. This principle complicated the relationship with the art trade. Salient in this respect is the response in 1897 of The French Gallery’s associate Mr Peacock to a request from the art community to borrow work by Tholen: ‘You quite understand we are not driven to show Tholen’s pictures as sell them.’58 However, by exhibiting the work of a good-selling artist such as Tholen, a collaboration with the art trade could hardly be avoided.

The point of departure of the art society to present a survey of Tholen’s oeuvre can also be discerned in the structure of the highly informative catalogue compiled with the help of Plasschaert. In addition to Tholen, Plasschaert was in close contact with the Kunstkring. In a letter discussing the last loose ends of the Tholen exhibition, Plasschaert immediately forwarded a new concept for a show with Van Stolk: ‘Hope that we can organise another exhibition together: I’m highly inclined toward the Exhibition of the 99 Portraits, for example.’59 Plasschaert’s work collecting the data for the catalogue proved highly useful when he was writing his article on the exhibition for the periodical Onze Kunst, the most comprehensive one published on the exhibition.

12a
Photograph of the painting Butcher Shop by Willem Bastiaan Tholen, with an inscription by A. Plasschaert

12b
Photograph of the painting Butcher Shop by Willem Bastiaan Tholen, with an inscription by A. Plasschaert (verso)

13
Willem Bastiaan Tholen, Vegetable Garden and Greenhouse of Ewijkshoeve
oil on canvas on panel 32 x 40,2 cm
Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum, on loan from a private collection 2013

Tholen certainly profited from this survey. He was commissioned to make a painting of the Meuse River on the occasion of the retirement of the mayor of Rotterdam, Frederik Bernard s’Jacob (1850-1935).60 In 1908 Tholen painted a portrait of the Rotterdam businessman Antoine Plate (1845-1927) (father of Sophie Plate, board member of the art society). In the years following the exhibition, the artist continued to limn other prominent Rotterdammers, including Dr. G.H. Hintzen (1851-1932), Arnold van den Bergh (1855-1932), several members of the Mees family, and the art collector J.P. van der Schilden (1851-1925).

Whereas in 1906 only one Rotterdammer (the butter and cheese wholesaler M. Gieseler) was among the owners of the art society’s exhibits, around 1930 Tholen’s work could be found in various interesting local art collections, such as those of Ph. Mees, Henricus Nijgh, C. van Stolk, Baron C.W.F.P. Sweerts de Landas Wyborgh, and the mayor of Rotterdam A.R. Zimmerman (1869-1939). With the donation of Tholen’s work from the collections of Willem van der Vorm (1873-1957) and A.J. Domela Nieuwenhuis (1850-1935) to Museum Boymans, the artist was ultimately also represented in the port city’s most prominent museum.


Exhibited Works

N.B. The titles, dates, materials and dimensions mentioned below are taken from the 1906 catalogue.

For the provenance data, see M. Jooren (ed.), Willem Bastiaan Tholen (1860-1931). Een gelukkige natuur, exh.cat. Paris (Fondation Custodia)/Dordrecht (Dordrechts Museum) 2019-2020.

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Number 1
Evening
Owner: H.M. the Queen Mother


Number 2
Landscape in Giethoorn 1881?
oil, canvas 114,5 x 83 cm
Owner: Pierre François de Friderici (1836-1916) (Deventer), chairman of the local art association Kunstliefde

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Number 3
Three Windmills 1883
oil, paper on canvas 27,5 x 44,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders


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Number 4
Ditch ± 1884
oil, canvas pasted 31 x 41,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 350 guilders
Sales price: 300 guilders
Buyer: Johannes Coenraad Moulijn (1862-1931) (Rotterdam), brother of the artist Simon (1866-1948)

Number 5
Windmill 1884, 1885
oil, canvas 93 x 148 cm
Owner: Hendrik Willem van Rossem (1861-1943) (Dieren), husband of Margot Tholen (sister of the artist)


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Number 6
Orchard 1885
oil, panel 31 x 45 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 275 guilders
Buyer: Mevr. Lebret (Oosterbeek)

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Number 7
Windmill 1885
oil, canvas pasted 39,5 x 38 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders


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Number 8
Spruce 1885 of 1886
oil, canvas pasted 27,5 x 33 cm
No asking price
Buyer: Jacq. Harlinghuis (Rotterdam)

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Number 9
Landscape with Cows 1885?
oil, canvas pasted dimensions not given
Owner: Laurens van Hulst (1845-1919) (Kampen), bookseller and notary


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Number 10
Crows 1886 or 1887
oil, panel 23 x 35,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 175 guilders

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Number 11
White Spot 1888
oil, panel 31 x 34,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders
Buyer: Jacobus Johannes Tiele (1835-1911) (The Hague), tobacco dealer and art-loving member of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring


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Number 12
Peat Market 1888
oil, panel 29 x 35,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders

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Number 13
Kite Flying ± 1888
oil, canvas pasted 30,5 x 40 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 175 guilders


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Number 14
Sand Barges 1888
oil, canvas pasted 30,8 x 52 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders

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Number 15
Sand Quarry 1888
oil, canvas pasted 29 x 51,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 350 guilders


Number 16
Portrait [of Paul Arntzenius (1883-1956)] 1887 or 1888
oil, canvas pasted 38 x 30 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen

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Number 17
Portrait [of Dora Wilhelmina Arntzenius (1882-1956)] ± 1888
oil, canvas pasted 38 x 30 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


Number 18
Playground 1888?
watercolour 448 x 590 mm
Owner: Jacobus Johannes Tiele (1835-1911) (The Hague)

Number 19
Milk Factory 1888?
watercolour 420 x 652 mm
Owner: Nicolaas Gerard Pierson (1839-1909) (The Hague), former minister, brother of Allard Pierson (1831-1896), bought works of art from Biesing, among others


Number 20
Slaughterhouse 1888, 1889?
oil, canvas 55 x 39,5 cm
Owner: Maria Magdalena Alida Tersteeg-Pronk (1845-1925)

Number 21
Sand Quarry 1888
1889?
oil, canvas 68 x 98 cm
Owner: Theodorus Antonius Josephus Gilissen (1858-1918) (Baarn), founder of Theodoor Gilissen Bankers


Number 22
Butcher 1888, 1889
oil, canvas 56 x 69 cm
Owner: Gerardus Willebrordus van Neijenhoff (1856-1923) (Amsterdam), lawyer

Number 23
Winter Amusement 1888, 1889
watercolour 485 x 625 mm
Owner: Gerardus Willebrordus van Neijenhoff (1856-1923) (Amsterdam)


Number 24
Doctor’s Carriage 1889
oil, canvas 70 x 60 cm
Owner: Jan Albertus van der Loeff (1854-1920) (The Hague)

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Number 25
Portrait [of Hendrika Maris-Bloemert (1807-1887)] 1889
oil, canvas 41 x 35 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


Number 26
Drawing Evening before 1890
oil, canvas 40 x 64 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 425 guilders

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Number 27
Boschhoek before 1890
oil, canvas pasted
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders


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Number 28
Yearlings 1890
oil, panel 24,5 x 35 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders
Buyer: Anna Ortt Gelderman (1871-1947) (The Hague)

Number 29
Portrait [of Dora Wilhelmina Arntzenius (1882-1956)] ± 1890
oil, canvas 59 x 44 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


Number 30
Still Life [lemon and lemonade (…)] 1890?
oil, panel 24,3 x 31 cm
Owner: Maria Magdalena Alida Tersteeg-Pronk (1845-1925)

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Number 31
Dune Top 1891?
oil, canvas pasted 29,5 x 21,8 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 175 guilders


Number 32
Dead Animal 1891?
oil, canvas pasted 39 x 54 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 500 guilders

Number 33
Painters 1891? Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders


Number 34
Winter 1891?
oil, canvas 58,5 x 68 cm
Owner: Herman Karel Westendorp (1868-1941) (Amsterdam), art collector

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Number 35
Street in Enkhuizen 1891
oil, canvas 40 x 55 cm
Owner: Wallis & Son firm


#

Number 36
Peat Bog 1892
oil, canvas pasted 29,5 x 37,8 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders

#

Number 37
Dunes 1892
oil, canvas pasted 30,8 x 52 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 350 guilders


Number 38
Office 1892
oil, canvas pasted 44,5 x 42 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 300 guilders

#

Number 39
Playground 1892
oil, canvas 63 x 88 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 500 guilders


Number 40
Portrait [of Elisabeth Caroline Arntzenius (1881-1936)] 1892
oil, canvas 35 x 33 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Probably RKDimages art-work number 150357

Number 41
Portrait [of Péronne Arntzenius (1883-1953)] 1892
oil, canvas 27 x 32 cm
Owner: Péronne Arntzenius (1883-1953) (The Hague), daughter of Bram Arntzenius


Number 42
Portrait [of Constance Arntzenius (1883-1941)] 1892?
oil, panel 39 x 31,5 cm
Owner: Constance (‘Stance’) Arntzenius (1883-1941) (The Hague), daughter of Bram Arntzenius

Number 43
Yellow Tree 1892
oil, canvas 58 x 69 cm
Owner: J.J. Biesing firm
Asking price: 1000 guilders


#

Number 44
Study of Woods 1892?
oil, canvas 48,3 x 53 cm
Owner: A. Preijer firm
Asking price: 400 guilders

#

Number 45
Elburg 1893
oil, canvas pasted 33,5 x 36,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders
Buyer: Georgette Petronella van Stolk (1867-1963) (Rotterdam), secretary of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring from 1903 to 1907, and board member between 1907 and 1911


#

Number 46
Cannenburgh 1893
oil, canvas pasted 29,5 x 41,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 275 guilders

#

Number 47
Night ± 1893
oil, canvas 60 x 87 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 900 guilders


#

Number 48
Apple Tree 1893
oil, canvas 55,5 x 69,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 650 guilders

#

Number 49
Portrait [of Péronne Arntzenius (1883-1953)] 1893
oil, panel 39 x 31,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


#

Number 50
Portrait [of Dora Wilhelmina Arntzenius (1882-1956)] 1893
oil, canvas, 41 x 34 cm
Owner: Elisabeth Caroline (‘Liesbeth’) Arntzenius (1881-1936) (The Hague), daughter of Bram Arntzenius

#

Number 51
Portrait [of Péronne Arntzenius (1883-1956)] 1893
oil, panel, 39 x 32 cm
Owner: Dorah Arntzenius (1882-1956) (The Hague), daughter of Bram Arntzenius


Number 52
Portrait [of Evert Cornelis Ekker (1858-1943)] 1893?
oil, canvas 44 x 35,8 cm
Owner: Evert Cornelis Ekker (1858-1943) (Oosterbeek), mechanical engineer and, after receiving a considerable inheritance, painter, until 1907 husband of paintress Lucie van Dam van Isselt

#

Number 53
Ewijkshoeve 1894
oil, canvas pasted 33 x 44 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 300 guilders


Number 54
View 1894
oil, canvas 43,5 x 55,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Possibly RKDimages art-work number 110112

Number 55
Watering Cans 1895
oil, panel 32 x 39,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 275 guilders
Buyer: Gerardus Willebrordus van Neijenhoff (1856-1923) (Amsterdam)


Number 56
Portraits [of Elisabeth Caroline (1881-1936) and Dora Wilhelmina Arntzenius (1882-1956)] 1895
oil, panel 37,5 x 57 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen

Number 57
Shed 1895
oil, panel 68 x 59,5 cm
Owner: J.J. Biesing firm
Asking price: 750 guilders
Probably RKDimages art-work number 110113


#

Number 58
Honnef 1895
watercolour 315 x 467 mm
Owner: Wallis & Son firm

#

Number 59
Dogs 1895
oil, canvas 64 x 95 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


Number 60
Construction Site 1895
oil, canvas 40,8 x 64 cm
Owner: Karel Polano (1852-1911) (The Hague), physician

#

Number 61
Dogs 1896
oil, canvas 70 x 60 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen


Number 62
Billiard Player 1896
oil, canvas 58 x 69 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 1200 guilders

Number 63
Pond 1896
oil, canvas 62 x 148 cm
Owner: Anna Ortt Gelderman (1871-1947) (The Hague)


Number 64
Behind the Studio 1896
watercolour 525 x 755 mm
Owner: Marinus Johannes Tiele (1841-1924) (The Hague)
Probably RKDimages art-work number 109900

#

Number 65
Giethoorn 1897
oil, canvas pasted 31 x 42,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 350 guilders


Number 66
Churchyard 1897
oil, canvas pasted 42,5 x 29,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders

#

Number 67
Delfzijl 1897 of 1898
oil, canvas 36 x 45,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 325 guilders


Number 68
Church with Graveyard 1897
watercolour 300 x 450 mm
Owner: Machiel Gieseler (1859-1923) (Rotterdam), wholesaler in butter and cheese

Number 69
Giethoorn 1897
oil, canvas 200 x 150 cm
Owner: J.J. Biesing firm
Asking price: 3000 guilders
Possibly RKDimages art-work no. 109817


#

Number 70
Giethoorn 1897?
watercolour 490 x 650 mm
Owner: Dr. C.L.G. Becht (The Hague)

#

Number 71
Hattem 1898
oil, canvas pasted 34 x 34,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders


#

Number 72
Harbour 1898
watercolour 210 x 350 mm
Owner: Gerardus Willebrordus van Neijenhoff (1856-1923) (Amsterdam)

#

Number 73
Herberg 1899
oil, canvas pasted 23,5 x 22,7 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guildersn
Buyer: J.L. Ligtenberg (Leiden)


Number 74
Billiards 1899
oil, canvas pasted 29,8 x 44,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 300 guilders

#

Number 75
Pier 1900?
oil, canvas pasted 26,5 x 31 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders


#

Number 76
Mooring Post 1900
oil, canvas pasted 27 x 30,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders
Buyer: Cobi Witsen (1851-1930) (The Hague)

#

Number 77
Enkhuizen 1900
oil, canvas pasted 27,5 x 49 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 300 guilders


#

Number 78
Harbour at Enkhuizen 1900
oil, canvas pasted 29,5 x 44 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders

#

Number 79
Sea 1900
oil, canvas pasted 31,5 x 22 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 175 guilders


#

Number 80
Sea 1900?
oil, canvas 41 x 62 cm
Owner: Wallis & Son firm

#

Number 81
Fishing Boat at Sea 1900?
oil, canvas pasted 28 x 37 cm
Owner: Paul Arntzenius (1883-1965), son of Bram Arntzenius


#

Number 82
Paper Factory 1902
oil, canvas pasted 37 x 51 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen

#

Number 83
Paper Mill 1902
oil, canvas 70 x 49,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 800 guildersn


#

Number 84
Drawbridge 1903
oil, canvas pasted 24,5 x 30,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders

#

Number 85
Stones 1903
oil, canvas pasted 20,5 x 25,7 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders


#

Number 86
Dredging 1903
oil, canvas pasted 18,2 x 27,7 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders

#

Number 87
Butcher 1903
oil, canvas 38 x 33 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 350 guilders


#

Number 88
Nijkerk 1903
oil, canvas pasted 21 x 29 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 375 guilders

#

Number 89
Zeegezicht 1903
oil, canvas 94,5 x 117,5 cm
Owner: A. Preijer firm
Asking price: 2000 guilders


Number 90
Butcher Shop 1903
oil, canvas pasted 34 x 49 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 475 guilders

#

Number 91
Church Nave 1903
coloured drawing 720 x 490 mm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 400 guilders


Number 92
Cannon 1903
charcoal drawing 485 x 640 mm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders

Number 93
Oude Wetering 1904
oil, canvas pasted 19,8 x 31,3 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 175 guilders
Buyer: Anton Bernhard Henny (1872-1958) (Rotterdam), banker; commissioned Henny Villa by architect Robert van ’t Hoff; treasurer of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring between 1903 and 1906


#

Number 94
Harderwijk 1904
oil, panel 34 x 32 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders

#

Number 95
Braassemer Lake 1904
oil, canvas pasted 24,3 x 30,8 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 300 guilders


Number 96
Ice Skaters 1904
oil, panel 20 x 30,8 cm
Owner: Marie Agathe Boddaert Gelderman (1844-1914) (The Hague)

#

Number 97
Zuiderzee 1905
oil, canvas pasted 20 x 24,8 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders


#

Number 98
,,Before the Wind” 1905
oil, canvas paste 24,5 x 31,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders
Buyer: Jacobus Johannes Tiele (1835-1911) (The Hague)

#

Number 99
Endia 1905
oil, canvas pasted 24,5 x 27,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 200 guilders


#

Number 100
Open Door 1905
oil, canvas pasted 24,7 x 32,5 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 250 guilders
Buyer: Marie Agathe Boddaert Gelderman (1844-1914) (The Hague)

#

Number 101
Volendam Fishing Boat, 1905
oil, canvas pasted 23,7 x 33 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 225 guilders


#

Number 102
Volendam 1905
oil, canvas 40 x 64 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 500 guilders

#

Number 103
Ship on a Ramp 1905
oil, canvas pasted 24,2 x 31,8 cm
Owner: Albert Plasschaert (1874-1941) (The Hague), art critic. Plasschaert bought this work from Tholen (see Tholen’s letter to Plasschaert, dated 16 November 1904, RKD, AAP)


#

Number 104
Carpentry Shed 1905
watercolour 510 x 668 mm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 700 guilders
Buyer: Grietie van Stolk (1860-1941) and William Smith (1849-1918) (Rotterdam)
Sales price: 500 guilders

#

Number 105
Thundercloud 1905
oil, canvas 70 x 60 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 1000 guilders


#

Number 106
Monnikendam 1906
oil, canvas 60 x 70 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 1000 guilders

#

Number 107
Wet Road 1906
oil, canvas 50 x 65 cm
Owner: W.B. Tholen
Asking price: 900 guilders


#

Number 108
Four Etchings in a Frame
Owner: Albert Plasschaert (1874-1941) (The Hague)


This page has been modified on 22-12-2020: the errors in catalogue nos. 68 and 69 were corrected


Notes

1 This article is based on the research on Tholen and the art market for the publication S. Veldink and E. de Visser, ‘”Benijdenswaardig handig”. Tholen en de internationale kunstmarkt’, in: M. Jooren (ed.), Willem Bastiaan Tholen (1860-1931). Een gelukkige natuur, exhibition cat. Parijs (Fondation Custodia)/Dordrecht (Dordrechts Museum) 2019-2020, pp. 64-75.

2 The following archives were consulted for this article: Rotterdamsche Kunstkring Archive (ARK) kept at the Stadsarchief Rotterdam (SAR), and the archives of Albert Plasschaert (0372) (AAP) and G.P. van Stolk (0749) (AGS), both in the RKD – Netherlands Institute for Art History.

3 An exhibition of primarily paintings was held at J.J. Biesing in The Hague in February and March. Subsequently, the largely identical collection was on view at Preijer in Amsterdam. It is not possible to check the extent to which the same works were displayed on the basis of the exhibition catalogues; the titles are simply too general. A.C. Loffelt notes, however, that it was the same selection (see A.C. Loffelt, ‘Tentoonstelling Tholen in Pictura te Amsterdam,’ Nieuws van den Dag, 26, March 1896). Still, the number of works exhibited in The Hague and Amsterdam did not entirely agree. Biesing ended the year with a watercolour exhibition between 16 October and 30 November.

4 G. [=G.H. Marius], ‘Haagsche kroniek. De Kunst van Tholen. ‘s-Gravenhage, 8 February,’ Algemeen Handelsblad 11 February 1896.

5 Ibid. The prelude to Tholen’s success in the Anglo-Saxon countries began in 1887 when works by members of the Hollandsche Teeken-Maatschappij were exhibited at Goupil in London. Thereafter Tholen’s work was on display in Glasgow in 1888; London, Montreal, and New York in 1891; and Chicago and Montreal in 1893. Insofar as could be ascertained, Tholen’s first solo exhibition was at Avery Galleries in New York in 1894 with a modest selection of thirteen paintings and two watercolours.

6 J. Gram, ‘Dutch artists of the last twenty-five years. III,’ The collector and art critic VII (1906), p. 212.

7 Work by W.B. Tholen was shown for the first time at the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring in 1896. In 1897 and 1903-1904 he exhibited twice together with F. Hart Nibbrig, E. Karsen, J. Mendes da Costa, and J. Voerman.

8 T. van Kalmthout, Muzentempels. Multidisciplinaire kunstkringen in Nederland tussen 1880 en 1914, Hilversum 1998, p. 596.

9 Ibid., p. 542.

10 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 25 June 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

11 Letter from G.P. van Stolk to W.B. Tholen, dated 6 July 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 66. The art society took this approach more often, as is evident from the announcement of the Tholen exhibition in the weekly De Maasbode on 18 February 1906: ‘The Kring appears to remain faithful to the good habit of exhibiting as many of a person’s works as possible at the same time. We think this is very meritorious, because in this way one is only able to form a balanced assessment of someone’s work.’

12 For more information about The French Gallery and W. Lawson Peacock, see Veldink and De Visser 2019 (note 1). That this concerned a ten-year contract is stated in a letter from Peacock to the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring of 1897 (see letter from W.L. Peacock to the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, dated 16 February 1897, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 28). The fact that Tholen was under contract from 1896 is deduced from the overwhelming presence of his work in exhibitions at home and abroad. In addition to the three solo exhibitions in the Netherlands, he was represented that year at eleven other locations. And in 1904 Tholen also wrote to Plasschaert: ‘If you bought the [panel, Old Fishing Boat on a Ramp], you would not have purchased it from me, but from Wallis & Son [...].’ (dated 16 November 1904, RKD, AAP).

13 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 8 November 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

14 Letter from J.J. Biesing to the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, dated 23 November 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

15 Boussod’s sales books show that most of the work went to Boussod’s London branch. By American art dealers Tersteeg was referring to, among others, Michael Knoedler, who was based in New York. Knoedler appears in Tersteeg’s sales books as buyer of Tholen’s work as early as 1887; The French Gallery from 1891. For the various sales books, see The Hague, RKD, Kunsthandel Goupil & Cie Archive (0355).

16 Frans Buffa & Zonen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 23 November 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

17 N.G. Pierson probably bought the painting at the exhibition held by Biesing in 1896 (no. 18 ‘Bij de schuur’ [Near the Shed]).

18 Letter from J.A. van der Loeff to G.P. van Stolk, dated 3 December 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

19 Letter from H.G. Tersteeg to G.P. van Stolk, dated 24 November 1905, ibid.

20 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 1 January 1906, ibid., inv. no. 37.

21 Not identified. The watercolour is not in the Dutch Royal Collections.

22 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 27 January 1906, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 37.

23 This painting was exhibited under the title Evening at Arti’s members’ exhibition in 1903 and was awarded the royal gold medal. The work was purchased by Her Majesty the Queen for 1000 guilders.

24 Letter from G.P. van Stolk to Kunsthandel Gerbrands, dated 19 January 1906, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 66.

25 Letter from Kunsthandel Gerbrands to G.P. van Stolk, dated 3 February 1906, ibid., inv. no. 37.

26 Letter from G.P. van Stolk to A. Reballio, dated 5 January 1906, ibid., inv. no. 66. Reballio served as the treasurer of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring in 1902 and 1903. He would succeed Van Stolk as secretary in 1907.

27 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 2 February 1906, ibid., inv. no. 37.

28 Letter from unknown correspondent to G.P. van Stolk, dated 12 December 1905, ibid., inv. no. 36.

29 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 2 February 1906, ibid., inv. no. 37.

30 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 2 February 1906, ibid.

31 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 16 February 1906, ibid.

32 Letter from W.L. Peacock to G.P. van Stolk, n.d., SAR, ARK, inv. no. 36.

33 Letter from W.L. Peacock to [M. Nijgh], dated 16 February 1906, ibid., no. 146.

34 The only work Van Stolk had requested, Port of Harderwijk, was not sent to Rotterdam. It is not included in the art dealer’s price list. It did appear in The French Gallery’s annual exhibition in London in May 1906. The painting is illustrated in: A. Margaux, ‘“My best picture” No. VI. – The choice of eminent Dutch painters,’ The Strand Magazine 32 (1906), p. 447 (with the caption: ‘selected by the artist as his best picture. Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Wallis & Son, The French Gallery’).

35 Letter from M. Nijgh to W.L. Peacock, dated 19 February 1906, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 146.

36 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 23 October 1905, ibid., inv. no. 36.

37 Letter from G.P. van Stolk to W.L. Peacock, dated 25 January 1906, ibid., inv. no. 66.

38 Unfortunately, the scrapbooks of exhibitions in the archive of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring yielded no clippings of Tholen’s show (inv. no. 457). The following reviews were retrieved: ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. W.B. Tholen. I,’ Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant 23 February 1906; ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. Tholen. II,’ [Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant] 7 March 1906; ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. Tholen. III,’ Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant 14 March 1906; ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. Tholen. IV (Slot),’ [Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant] 19 March 1906; ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring,’ De Maasbode 18 February 1906; ‘Stadsnieuws. Tentoonstelling,’ De Maasbode 23 February 1906; G. [= G.H. Marius], ‘Kunst- en Letternieuws. De Tholen tentoonstelling in den Rotterdamschen Kunstkring,’ Het Vaderland 23 February 1906; A.v.V., ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. W.B. Tholen. Rotterdam, 24 Febr.,’ Algemeen Handelsblad 26 February 1906; A.C. Loffelt, ‘Tholen in Rotterdamschen Kunstkring,’ Het Nieuws van den Dag 3 March 1906, A.T., ‘Tentoonstelling W.B. Tholen,’ Wereldkroniek 24 February 1906, p. 765 and A. Plasschaert, ‘W.B. Tholen’, Onze Kunst 5 (1906) 10, p. 11-18

39 Loffelt 1906 (note 38).

40 A.v.V. 1906 (note 38).

41 ‘Rotterdamsche Kunstkring. W.B. Tholen. I’ (note 38).

42 Plasschaert often visited the Tholens in the ‘Kanaalvilla’.

43 Plasschaert 1906 (note 38).

44 Letter from W.B. Tholen to A. Plasschaert, dated 7 February 1906, RKD, AAP, inv. no. 287.

45 Letter from W.B. Tholen to A. Plasschaert, dated 9 February 1906, ibid.

46 Letter from G.P. van Stolk to A. Plasschaert, dated 19 June 1905 and letter from G.P. van Stolk to W.B. Tholen, dated 19 June 1905, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 66.

47 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 8 November 1905, ibid., inv. no. 36.

48 Letter from W.B. Tholen to A. Plasschaert, dated 9 February 1906, RKD, AAP, inv. no. 287.

49 Letter from W.B. Tholen to A. Plasschaert, dated 7 February 1906, ibid.

50 The artist’s disappointment may also be explained by the great difficulty he had in letting go of his work. On more than one occasion, Tholen wrote to Van Stolk that the fact that he did not know where his works were must have been problematic for her, but she was perfectly capable of tracing the owners on the basis of the names Tholen and others had provided her. Tholen’s difficulty in parting with his work is also evidenced by the fact that as soon as he was given the opportunity, he sometimes revised his work, often years after completion. When The French Gallery’s shipment of nearly 30 artworks was delivered in February, Tholen took two of them home with him to rework.

51 Information about the sale of the works at the exhibition is taken from the annotated catalogues in the archive of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring (inv. no. 229), the annotated catalogue of Plasschaert (RKD Library), and correspondence.

52 Minutes of the board meeting of the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, dated 30 March 1906, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 7.

53 Letters from W.B. Tholen to M. Nijgh, dated 9 and 16 April 1906, ibid., inv. no. 146. For the calculation of the prices I relied on ‘De waarde van de gulden / euro’ (The value of the guilder / euro) of the International Institute for Social History (www.iisg.nl/hpw/calculate-nl.php) (consulted 9 June 2019).

54 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 19 February 1906, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 37. Moulijn apparently also asked Tholen about the possibility of having portraits of his children painted. However, there are no indications that they were actually made.

55 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 24 [February?] 1906, RKD, AGS, inv. no. 27.

56 Letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated March 1906, ibid.

57 For the relationship between the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring and the art trade, see Van Kalmthout 1998 (note 8), pp. 605-608.

58 Letter from W.L. Peacock to the Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, dated 16 February 1897, SAR, ARK, inv. no. 28.

59 Letter from A. Plasschaert to G.P. van Stolk, undated, RKD, AGS, inv. no. 14 and letter from W.B. Tholen to G.P. van Stolk, dated 19 March 1906, ibid., inv. no. 27.

60 Letter from A. Plasschaert to G.P. van Stolk, undated, ibid., inv. no. 14.

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